\n\nWritten by: Nicky Barker, Founder of Little Ones \u0026amp; Paediatric Sleep Specialist\nIn this article:\n\nAwake times\nOver and under tiredness\nNapping\nNight sleep and waking\nSettling, your baby’s room, and other factors affecting sleep\n\nWelcome to parenthood! It's a pretty cool club, but there are a few things you ought to know about the newest member of your family... \nBabies grow and change very rapidly in the first 12 weeks of their lives as they adapt to life in the outside world. Their sleep patterns and rhythms start to mature towards the end of this period and in these initial few months, you will see evidence of a lot of neurological development in your baby. Let's examine what is going on in your baby's world during this time:\nAwake Times:\nWhen your baby is brand new they will be very sleepy from the birth. In some babies this can wear off in a few days, in some it will take a few weeks. This can mean your baby seems to constantly just be feeding and sleeping and some very young babies can really only stay awake for 1 hour at a time before they need to be back asleep.\n\nBy the time your baby reaches 12 weeks their awake times should have gradually stretched to 2 hours between naps. Baby sleep is quite a delicate thing and babies are very sensitive to the balance of awake times and nap lengths. If these are not changing to suit your baby as they grow, your baby will be resisting naps, napping for short periods and waking more frequently in the night or staying awake for long periods in the night. Many people fall into the trap of thinking their 12 week old baby can only stay awake for an hour at a time, however their baby's sleep needs have changed dramatically over the last 3 months and their awake times have changed too. These changes can be gently achieved with our Sleep Programs, to make it easier for you to know just how and when to extend your baby's awake time and regulate their nap lengths.\n \n\nOver \u0026amp; Under Tiredness:\nBabies in this age bracket can get overtired really quickly and easily and then need a lot of help to switch off and settle to sleep. But, overtiredness also very regularly gets mistaken for under tiredness. (Read THIS blog for more info). Once the newborn sleepiness wears off, your baby may start to exhibit quite unsettled behavior - crying more, being difficult to settle to sleep, catnapping, very frequent night waking. Many people think this unsettledness is colic, reflux or overtiredness, when in actual fact for a lot of babies they are under tired and now need to have some more awake time between naps. \n \nNapping:\nSleep is as much a nutrient for babies as milk. It is often overlooked, even by some medical professionals, in terms of it's absolute importance to a baby's growth and development. Up until the age of 2.5 to 3 years, babies and toddlers NEED daytime naps. The amount of nap hours obviously changes during this time, however in order to encourage good night sleep, efficient feeding and a happier baby, you need to work towards an appropriate amount of nap hours for your little one. \nAs an indication, a baby between the ages of 0-6 weeks should be having a cumulative total of between 5.5 - 4.5 daytime nap hours. From 6-12 weeks this amount becomes 4.5 - 3.5 hours. These dramatic changes in nap hours throughout the first 3 months happen as a result of your baby's neurological maturation and their ability to stay awake for longer periods between naps. If your 12 week old baby is still having 4 or 5 hours total napping in the day they are likely starting to wake a lot more in the night, resist settling at bedtime, staying awake for long periods between 2-4am or waking early in the morning. \nIf your baby is not doing even close to these nap hours, there may be several reasons why and your best place to start is with our Sleep Programs. Ruling out over or under tiredness means you'll be better able to work out whats going on with your little one. See the below section on settling, your baby's room and other factors affecting sleep for more suggestions.\n \n\nDay \u0026amp; Night Confusion:\nThis is a common "condition" for newborn babies and there is a lot of folklore out there that suggests this is more to do with sleeping babies in the light during the day so they learn to differentiate daytime from night... However, prior to 8 weeks old this won't make much difference to your baby's ability to regulate their napping and night time sleep. What causes this day\/night confusion is actually an imbalance in your baby's very immature circadian rhythm. Their body clock hasn't set itself yet. This is why your baby may happily sleep for big stretches during the day then wake a lot more regularly at night. We obviously want to reverse this pattern, so you and your baby can sleep those longer stretches during the night and so your baby isn't missing any feeds in the day. The best way to do this is to help your baby regulate their nap hours by having a bit more control over how long they nap for. This will encourage them to consolidate their night time sleep and they will learn sort their days and nights out a lot quicker. \n \nNight Sleep \u0026amp; Waking:\nIn the first 12 weeks your baby will wake in the night and need milk. Very few babies are able to sleep "through the night" without needing a feed at this age and prior to 6 months old, babies aren't capable of forming habit wakes. There are also a number of other reasons, aside from hunger, your baby might be waking in the night, especially if their waking has increased or seems very very frequent - eg every hour:\n- they are not swaddled (swaddling is a crucial element in your baby sleeping better in the day and at night)\n- they are being woken by environmental or household noises (using white noise is the best way to combat this)\n- they are too hot or cold\n- they are uncomfortable (usually from wind)\n- they are sick\n- they have a condition such as reflux (read this blog for more information)\n- they have had too much or too little day sleep\n \nSettling:\nYoung babies brains operate for sleep in a slightly different way to ours. They change very rapidly and by 4 months your little one's sleep will become a lot more like adult sleep with more mature sleep cycles. This period of change is commonly known as the 4 month sleep regression, when babies begin to fully wake between sleep cycles, every 35-45 minutes in the day and every 2 hours overnight.\nPrior to this age however, a baby will more easily drift between sleep cycles during their naps or night time sleep and the way you put your baby to sleep before 12 weeks won't have much impact on their ability to stay asleep (like it does once they are closer to 4 months). In the first 12 weeks it's fine to settle your baby completely to sleep - don't worry about "spoiling" your baby during this time or focusing too much on "self-setting". That said, we would always recommend setting up good sleep habits from early on, in the hope that the sleep transition during the 4 month period is a lot smoother. \nTo do this you could:\n- aim to have your baby sleep in their own bed for at least one nap a day, so they learn this is where they go to sleep\n- settle your baby to sleep in their bed rather than on you or in your arms so they learn that their bed is where they fall asleep. See our video here on the best settling method\n- give your baby the chance to fall asleep on their own, once they're ready for sleep and drowsy, if you think they can\n- give your baby positive sleep associations like a swaddle, dark room, white noise\n \nYour Baby's Nursery:\nThe environment your baby sleeps in can have a big impact on their settling and sleep at this age. In the first few weeks your baby will likely be happy to sleep anywhere because they're still in that newborn sleepy stage. The very first thing that will help your baby settle better and sleep for longer periods is a good tight swaddle. Swaddling is the oldest settling trick in the book and replicates the confined feeling of being in the womb, ensuring babies can't startle themselves awake with their moro reflex, which doesn't disappear until around 4 to 6 months.\nWhite noise is another key component in helping your baby to settle and sleep. In the womb your baby is used to noise as loud as a vacuum cleaner 24\/7; the sound of your heartbeat, digestive system and your blood rushing all around them. White noise is extremely comforting to babies and helps them tune out and fall asleep. We recommend playing it louder than your baby's cries to calm them and as loud as a shower when sleeping. Use white noise for all your baby's naps and overnight too.\nOnce your baby reaches around 8 weeks old there is a shift in their hormonal balance as the hormones they had from birth have now worn off. One of these hormones is Melatonin and is responsible for helping us fall asleep and stay asleep. Melatonin is only produced and released in the dark, so sleeping your baby in a dark room is an excellent way to promote good sleep. Like all mammals, babies find the dark comforting - they aren't afraid of the dark as older children might be; babies are not capable of mature emotions like fear. Avoid the use of night lights as these will actually stimulate your baby more and will not help your baby switch off and sleep.\n \nOther Factors Affecting Sleep:\nIn the first 12 weeks some other factors can affect your baby's ability to go to sleep and stay asleep. For babies who have a more predicable sleep pattern to their day it is far easier to pick up when something is amiss. \nHunger is often an issue with young babies. A hungry baby will not settle or sleep. Whether you are breast or bottle feeding, there are factors that need to be considered if you feel your baby seems to be constantly hungry or unsettled, such as an undiagnosed lip or tongue ties or reflux. If everything else seems to line up for your baby to get them sleeping well yet you suspect hunger is still the issue, talk to your paediatrician about these possibilities.\nSickness can also affect a baby's sleep. Common colds can mean your baby is uncomfortable or in pain and you should follow your medical professional's advice here. Often, more seriously, babies can suffer from ear or throat infections and show no outward symptoms (not even a fever) other than a disturbance to their sleep. In most countries healthcare is free for infants so it always pays to err on the side of caution and have your baby checked by your GP.\n \nAt this young age, babies change very quickly; our Sleep Programs change with your baby as their awake times increase and their nap hours regulate.\n\n\nDownload our FREE Newborn Sleep Guide for loads of helpful info. \n ___________\n Bibliography \nRybak, Anna et al. “Gastro-Esophageal Reflux in Children.” International journal of molecular sciences vol. 18,8 1671. 1 Aug. 2017, doi:10.3390\/ijms18081671\nM.D. Arthur H. Parmelee Jr. et al, "Sleep patterns of the newborn"; The Journal of Paediatrics, February 1961Volume 58, Issue 2, Pages 241–250\nGoodlin-Jones, B L et al. “Night waking, sleep-wake organization, and self-soothing in the first year of life.” Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP vol. 22,4 (2001): 226-33.\nde Weerth, C., R.H. Zijl, and J.K. Buitelaar. Development of cortisol circadian rhythm in infancy. Early Hum Dev. 73(1-2): p. 39-52. 2003.\nGunnar, M.R. and B. Donzella. Social regulation of the cortisol levels in early human development. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 27(1-2): p. 199-220. 2002.\nMiddlemiss, W., D.A. Granger, W.A. Goldberg, and L. Nathans. Asynchrony of mother-infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity following extinction of infant crying responses induced during the transition to sleep. Early Hum Dev. 88(4): p. 227-32. 2012.\nSt James-Roberts I, Roberts M, Hovish K, Owen C. Video Evidence That Infants Can Resettle Themselves Back to Sleep After Waking in the Night, as well as Sleep for Long Periods, by 3 Months of Age. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2015 Jun;36(5):324-9. doi: 10.1097\/DBP.0000000000000166. PubMed PMID: 26035139; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4459553.